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Electrophysiology (EP) studies are used to locate and diagnose the cause of known arrhythmias, whether they occur in the upper chambers of the heart (atria) or lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). In general, EP studies are only recommended for patients whose conditions could not be adequately diagnosed with a standard electrocardiogram (ECG). Because the EP study is invasive, it is not considered a first-line diagnostic test for arrhythmias.